Four major components of electric bicycles
The most critical “four major components” of electric bicycle
The structure of lead-acid batteries used in electric bicycles is mainly composed of battery shell, positive plate, negative plate, separator, electrolyte, terminal, sealant, safety valve and other components.
The types of batteries can be divided into: lithium-ion batteries, nickel-hydrogen batteries, colloidal batteries and maintenance-free lead-acid batteries. Among them, colloidal batteries and lead-acid batteries are commonly used.
According to the voltage, they can be divided into 12V, 24V, 36V, 48V, 60V and so on. The most commonly used for electric vehicles are 48V and 60V.
According to the capacity specifications can be divided into: 10AH, 12AH, 17AH, 20AH, 22AH, etc. The most commonly used batteries for electric bikes are 12AH and 20AH.
Batteries are the energy source for electric bicycles, and lead-acid batteries are mainly used in electric bicycles. In addition, NiMH and Li-ion batteries have been used in some light folding electric bikes. Tips: The main control board is the main circuit of the e-bike, which has a large working current and will emit a large amount of heat. Therefore, do not park the electric bicycle in the sun, and do not get wet for a long time, so as to avoid the failure of the controller.
Two: electric bicycle motor: the chemical energy of the battery into mechanical energy, from the rotation energy into mechanical traction, so that the wheel rotation, the motor’s working voltage and working current is inversely proportional to the power of the motor and climbing ability is proportional to.
According to the way of energization can be divided into brushed motor and brushless motor.
A: Brush motor is a core winding, magnet sheet, carbon brush, brush holder, commutator, etc., relying on carbon brush and commutator exchange contact to achieve regular running effect.
B:Brushless motor is composed of iron core winding, magnetic steel sheet, Hall element, etc., relying on Hall (sub-electricity angle) commutation to achieve regular operation effect.
According to the structure of the motor can be divided into: brushless gearless, brushless gearless, brushless gear, brush gear, etc., the most commonly used is brushless gearless motor.
According to the working voltage can be divided into: 12V, 24V, 36V, 48V, 60V, 64V, etc., the most commonly used is 48V motor.
According to the power can be divided into: 180W, 250W, 350W, 500W, 800W, 1000W, etc., the most commonly used is 350W and 500W motor.
The most important accessory of an electric bicycle is the motor, and the motor of an electric bicycle basically determines the performance and grade of the car. Most of the motors used in electric bicycles are high-efficiency rare earth permanent magnet motors, which are mainly divided into three types: high-speed brush tooth + wheel gear motors, low-speed brush motors and low-speed brushless motors. The motor is the part that converts the battery electric energy into mechanical energy and drives the wheel rotation of the electric bicycle. There are many kinds of motors used in electric vehicles, their mechanical structure, speed range and energized form. The common ones are: brushed geared hub motor, brushed toothless wheel motor, brushless toothless wheel motor, brushless geared hub motor, high disk motor, side mount motor, etc.
Three: electric bicycle controller: control the battery output current, voltage and then achieve control of motor speed and power, that is, the speed of the whole car, to control the effect of the whole car. The main functions are stepless speed regulation, brake power off, current limit protection, under voltage protection, speed limit, speed display, 1:1 booster, etc.
According to the different functions and structures, it can be divided into two kinds: brush controller and brushless controller.
According to the working voltage can be divided into: 24V, 36V, 48V, 60V, 64V, etc., the most commonly used is the 48V controller.
According to the output power can be divided into: 180W, 250W, 350W, 500W, 800W, etc., the most commonly used is the 350W and 500W controller.
The controller is the part that controls the speed of the motor, and is also the core of the electrical system of the electric vehicle, with under-voltage, current limiting or over-current protection function. The intelligent controller also has a variety of riding modes and self-test function for the whole electric parts of the vehicle. The controller is the core component of electric vehicle energy management and various control signal processing
Four: electric bicycle charger: is to supplement the battery energy to the battery charging equipment, can convert the utility power into direct current and control its current and voltage charged into the battery storage appliances.
Charger mainly has rectifier filter, high voltage switch, voltage exchange and electric control and other parts, the working state has constant current, constant voltage, float charging three stages.
A: Constant current is according to the type of battery;
B:Constant voltage is according to the standard of the battery, the conventional single cell voltage 14.7V-14.8V
C: float charging is according to the standard of the battery, the conventional single cell voltage 13.8V-14V
Charger is a device to replenish the battery’s electrical energy, generally divided into two stages charging mode and three stages mode. Two-stage charging mode: first constant voltage charging, charging current gradually decreases with the rise of the battery voltage, after the battery power replenishment to a certain extent, the battery voltage will rise to the charger’s set value, and then converted to trickle charging. Three-stage charging mode: when charging starts, constant current charging first, quickly replenish energy to the battery; wait for the battery voltage to rise and then switch to constant voltage charging, when the battery energy slowly replenishes, the battery voltage continues to rise; when it reaches the charger’s charging termination voltage value, switch to trickle charging to maintain the battery and supply the battery self-discharge current.
Lamps, meters Lamps, meters part is a combination of components that provide lighting and display the status of the electric vehicle. The meter generally provides battery voltage display, whole vehicle speed display, riding status display, lamp status display, etc. The smart meter can also display the fault condition of each electrical component of the whole vehicle. Most common configurations of electric bicycles use hub motors to directly drive the front or rear wheel rotation. Although the shape of these bicycles and the location of the battery are different, there are commonalities in their driving and control principles. This type of electric bicycle is the mainstream of electric vehicle products.
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