Lithium-ion battery characteristics and classification
Characteristics of lithium-ion battery
(1) High energy density
The weight of a lithium-ion battery is half that of a nickel-cadmium or nickel-metal hydride battery with the same capacity, and its volume is 20-30% of nickel-cadmium and 35-50% of nickel-metal hydride.
shuangye electric bike Lithium-ion battery
(2) High voltage
The working voltage of a single lithium ion battery cell is 3.7V (average value), which is equivalent to three nickel-cadmium or nickel-metal hydride batteries connected in series.
(3) No pollution
Lithium-ion battery do not contain harmful metal substances such as cadmium, lead, and mercury.
(4) Does not contain metal lithium
Lithium-ion battery do not contain lithium metal, so they are not subject to restrictions on the prohibition of carrying lithium batteries on passenger planes in aircraft transportation.
(5) High cycle life
Under normal conditions, the charge-discharge cycle of a lithium-ion battery can exceed 500 times.
(6) No memory effect
The memory effect refers to the phenomenon that the capacity of the nickel-cadmium battery decreases during the charge-discharge cycle. Lithium-ion batteries do not have this effect.
(7) Fast charging
Using a constant current and constant voltage charger with a rated voltage of 4.2V, the lithium-ion battery can be fully charged within 1.5-2.5 hours.
Lithium ion battery for electric bicycles can be roughly divided into three categories: lithium manganate battery, ternary material battery and lithium iron phosphate battery.
Lithium manganate battery: To solve the high temperature performance of lithium manganate battery, the positive electrode material, battery structure design and electrolyte formula of the battery must be improved. In Japan and South Korea, modified lithium manganese oxide is used. When the modified lithium manganese oxide battery is stored at 65°C for one week, the capacity only drops to 99%.
Ternary material battery: Cobalt, nickel, manganese ternary material is used as a lithium ion battery as the cathode material. It overcomes the shortcomings of poor high-temperature performance of lithium manganate and improves the specific energy of the battery.
Lithium iron phosphate battery: Since 2002, the United States and Canada have begun to develop iron phosphate lithium ion batteries, which have become a new type of power lithium ion battery with great development prospects. Long life, 2000 cycles of 1C charge and discharge at room temperature.
Advantages of lithium iron phosphate battery: high safety. The phosphate chemical bond has strong binding force and good structural stability; it is environmentally friendly and does not contain any heavy metals; it is non-toxic (SGS certified), no pollution; fast charging speed, high current 5～10C fast charge and discharge of lithium iron phosphate battery ; Good high-current discharge performance; 10～50C high-current high-power discharge.
Disadvantages of lithium iron phosphate battery: low temperature performance is inferior to other cathode materials such as lithium manganate. The cell voltage of a lithium iron phosphate battery is 3.2V. A 36V battery pack requires 12 single cells in series. The life of single lithium iron phosphate battery is currently more than 2000 times, but the life of the battery pack may only be 500 times
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