With the continuous calls for global sustainable development , green energy has become the theme of the times. Low-carbon, low consumption travel tools become the favorite of the worldwide’s people in the New Age. Go with the tide, the electric vehicles has been rapid developed and soon swept the globe. Electric bicycles, refers to a battery as an auxiliary energy on the basis of an ordinary bicycle, and installed motors, controllers, throttle, brake electrical, mechanical components and display systems as a integrated personal transportation, Including: charger, battery, controller, throttle, PAS sensor, motors, light,display etc.
The battery charger is power devices for supplement the battery , and generally divided into two-stage and three-stage charging mode. For the two-stage charging mode: first goes constant voltage charging, with the increasing of battery voltage,the charging current will decreases, when the battery charge to a certain degree, the battery voltage rises to the set value of the charger, then converted to trickle charge.Three-stage charging mode: When charging starts, the first is constant current charging, and quickly replenish energy to battery. Once the battery voltage rises into constant voltage charging, the battery energy slowly added, the voltage continues to rise. When reaching the charging termination voltage,it will change to trickle charge for maintain and supply the battery’s self-discharge current.
The battery provide the energy to vehicle, mainly used lead-acid battery pack. Furthermore, the NiMH batteries and lithium-ion batteries have also been used in some portable folding electric vehicle.
TIPS: the controller board is the main circuit of the electric vehicle, with large current and heat. In order to avoid controller failure,try not park it in the sun exposure or heavy rain for a long time.
Controller is a part to control the motor speed component and also the core of electrical system, can protect the under voltage , current limiting and overcurrent situation. Intelligent controller also has variety of riding modes and self-test function forfull electrical components . The controller is core components of electric energy management and every signal processing controlling.
Throttle and brake are the signal input part of the controller. Use the throttle start the motor, use the brake stop it. The internal electronic circuit of brake output an electrical signal to the controller, after the controller receive it, it will cut off the power supply to the motor and stop the motor.
PAS sensor is detected pedal speed signal when the electric vehicle in pedal system. The controller according to the motor drive power in order to achieve automatic matching of manpower and electricity to drive the electric vehicle. Currently the most popular PAS sensor is mid-axis bilateral torque sensor. It can capture both sides of the pedal force, and use non-contact electromagnetic signal acquisition mode, improving the accuracy and reliability of the signal acquisition.
Motor is the most important accessory of electric bicycle , it is basically determines the function and quality of the electric bicycles. The electric motor bikes are most used efficient rare earth permanent magnet motor, which mainly divided into high-speed brush + gear wheel gear motor, low speed brush motor and low-speedbrushless motor. Motor is a part to convert the battery power into mechanical energy and to drive the electric wheel rotating. For the most electric car used motor , there are many types mechanical structure, speed range and power. The common use are: brush geared hub motor, brush gearless hub motor, brushless gearless hub motor, brushless geared hub motor, high magnetic disk motor and side-mount motors.
Light and display sections are provide lighting and shows the states of electric vehicles. The display generally provide battery voltage , vehicle speed, ridin
g status , lighting, status etc. Intelligent display also provide the faults components of the vehicle.
Most electric bikes are using wheel motor directly drives the front wheels or the rotating rear wheels. These wheel motor depending on the output speed, respectively, with different wheel diameter to drive the vehicle traveling， and the the speeds up to 20km / h. Although these electric vehicles and battery modeling different positions and shapes, but the drive motor and controller share the principle commonalities. Such electric bicycles are the mainstream products.
Specially constructed electric bike
A small amount of electric vehicles using non-wheel motor drive, they are using side-mount, cylindrical motor, mid-drive motor,tire friction motor . Generally such motor driven electric cars will decrease the vehicle weight,it is more efficiency than the wheel moto
r. But the range will shorter typically 5% -10% compared with wheel motor in the case of the same battery capacity.