Failure and maintenance of ebike controller
Failure and maintenance of ebike controller
Factors affecting the reliability of the ebike controller:
1. The failure of the ebike controller, in terms of manifestations, has the following types:
（1）The power device is damaged;
（2）The internal power supply of the controller is damaged;
（3）The controller works intermittently;
（4）The control signal is lost due to the wear of the connecting wire and the bad or falling off of the connector.
2. The causes of the above failure forms are analyzed as follows:
A. The damage of power devices generally has the following possibilities: motor damage; poor quality of the power device itself or insufficient selection level; device installation or vibration looseness; motor overload; power device drive circuit damage Or caused by unreasonable parameter design.
B. The internal power supply of the ebike controller is damaged. Generally, there are the following possibilities: the internal circuit of the controller is short-circuited; the peripheral control components are short-circuited; the external leads are short-circuited.
C. The ebike controller works intermittently. Generally, there are the following possibilities: the device itself is parameter drifting under high temperature or low temperature environment; the large power consumption of the overall design of the controller causes the local temperature of some devices to be too high and the device itself enters the protection Status; poor contact.
D. The connection line is worn and the contact plug-in is in poor contact or falls off. Generally, there are the following possibilities:
The wire selection is unreasonable; the protection of the wire is not complete; the selection of the connector is not good; the crimping of the wire harness and the connector is not strong.
Controller failure and maintenance:
By measuring the power supply voltage or signal voltage of the connecting parts or leads of the ebike controller, the fault of the controller can be analyzed and judged. The following is the inspection and troubleshooting methods for common faults of the controller.
1. There is no output from the brush ebike controller
Check the high and low potential of the output signal of the brake first. If the signal of the brake has a potential change exceeding 4V when the brake is squeezed, the fault of the brake can be eliminated. After that, perform circuit analysis according to the function table of the commonly used chip pins of the brush controller, and the measured voltage values of the main control chip and the logic chip, and check whether the value of the peripheral components (resistance, capacitance, diode) of each chip is consistent with the surface of the component The identities are the same, and it is detected that the peripheral device or the integrated circuit is malfunctioning. We can eliminate the fault by replacing the device of the same model.
2. The brushless controller has no output
The faults of the brushless ebike controller power supply and the brake handle can be eliminated by referring to the troubleshooting methods of the brushless controller.
The running fault is generally caused by the breakdown of the MOS tube. If the MOS tube is damaged, the fault can be eliminated by replacing the same type of device.
4. The power supply of the brushed controller component is abnormal
The internal power supply of the ebike controller generally adopts three-terminal voltage stabilized integrated electrical appliances, generally 7805, 7806, 7812, 7815 voltage stabilized integrated circuits, and their output voltages are 5V, 6V, 12V, 15V, and generally brushed controllers can pass Replace the three-terminal voltage regulator integrated circuit to eliminate the fault.
5. The brushless controller has no output at all
Refer to the main phase check measurement diagram of the brushless ebike controller to check whether the voltage corresponds to the rotation angle of the handle. If there is no corresponding relationship, it means that the PWM circuit or MOS transistor drive circuit in the controller is faulty. Refer to the main phase check diagram of the brushless controller, and measure whether the voltage of the input and output pins of the chip corresponds to the rotation angle of the handle, and you can determine which chips are faulty. Replace the chip of the same model to eliminate the fault. The following table shows the commonly used chip pin functions of brushless controllers.
6. Replacement method and precautions of circuit components
In the case of detecting damage to the integrated circuit and MOS tube, it is necessary to replace the integrated circuit and MOS tube. Here are some common operating methods.
1. Disassemble the integrated circuit
When disassembling, heat the printed circuit board with an alcohol lamp flame outer flame to weld the circuit pin pads. Move the printed circuit board quickly and evenly until the solder on all pads melts. Use tweezers to remove the integrated circuit from the printed circuit board. When soldering, clean the solder in the solder hole, insert the integrated circuit, and quickly solder the pins with a well-grounded electric soldering iron. Note that the speed should be fast, so as not to cause excessive local temperature due to the long soldering time, and damage the circuit or the pad.
2. Disassemble the power device
When disassembling, cut off the MOS tube or the three-terminal voltage regulator pins, and then solder their pins separately, so as to avoid damaging the printed circuit board pads when disassembling large-pin components.
3. Welding integrated circuits and power devices The trick to welding is whether it can be welded well at one time.
Because the soldering iron has a certain amount of heat, if the soldering iron stays at the soldering place for a long time, it is likely that the heat from the soldering iron will be transferred to the non-soldering parts, and the high-precision parts will be damaged. This is what is particularly noteworthy when welding electric components in electric vehicles, so as to avoid damaging the circuits inside the components. To solder integrated circuits and power devices, first remove excess solder to make the solder clean and make the pad holes clearly visible. Then use an electric soldering iron less than or equal to 30W to solder the integrated circuits and power devices to the corresponding positions.
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