How to Troubleshoot an Electric Bike
1. The meter shows normal, but the motor does not rotate
1) The cause of the failure
①Judgment of brake handle damage
②Judgment of damage to the speed control handle
③Judgment of motor damage
④The controller is damaged
① Unplug the brake lever socket (normally open type brake lever). If the motor is running, the brake lever is faulty, and the brake lever should be replaced.
②The 5V voltage of the handlebar source is normal, check the handlebar signal voltage, and rotate the handlebar, the signal voltage should change from low to high at 0.8～4.2V. If the voltage does not change and is less than 1V, it means that there is a fault in the handlebar or there is a short circuit in the handlebar wire. If the voltage is greater than 1V and the change is normal, check the motor Hall signal (yellow, green, blue lines). If the voltage of the three-phase Hall signal line is all 5V and the contact is good, the motor Hall is damaged, and the motor or the motor Hall element should be replaced.
(2) ③Check the hall signal wires of the motor separately, and turn the motor slowly by hand. The voltage of each phase should be changed between 0～5V. If the voltage does not change, the hall of the motor is damaged, and the motor or the hall element of the motor should be replaced. . If the voltage conversion of each phase is normal and the power supply is normal, the controller is damaged. Replace the controller.
④ Use a multimeter to check the voltage of the controller’s power input terminal. The voltage should be greater than 36V (the battery is fully charged). If there is no voltage, check the input line. Check the power supply voltage of the controller’s handlebar (connecting the red and black wires of the handlebar). The normal voltage is 5～6V. If there is no 5V voltage, unplug the handlebar socket and the voltage restores to 5V. It may be a short circuit of the motor Hall element, such as If there is still no 5V voltage, the controller is faulty and the controller should be replaced.
⑤First check whether there is a short circuit between the speed control handle and the motor Hall head. Generally, it is more likely to cause a short circuit after rain and moisture. Therefore, pay attention to the waterproofing of the handle joint. If the controller is damaged, check the handle first before replacing the new controller. Is there a short circuit with the hall switch of the motor? Otherwise it will cause continuous damage to the replacement controller!
⑥Or the motor does not rotate, focus on checking the motor Hall switch and the signal of the steering handle. If the controller shell is very hot once it is powered on, it is generally because the internal power tube of the controller is short-circuited, and the power supply should be cut off immediately.
2. When the motor stops and rotates
(1) The cause of the fault ①The battery voltage is in the critical state of undervoltage. ②The battery connector is in poor contact. ③The wire of the speed control switch should be disconnected. ④The brake power-off switch is malfunctioning. ⑤The power lock is damaged and the contact is poor. ⑥The line connector is poorly connected. ⑦The components in the controller are not welded firmly. ⑧The carbon brushes and wire groups in the motor have virtual welding.
(2) Troubleshooting ①Check the battery voltage and recharge the battery. ②Adjust or replace the plug. ③Reconnect the lead wire of the speed control handle. ④Adjust or replace the brake power-off switch. ⑤ Replace the power lock. ⑥ Reconnect the line. ⑦Replace the controller. ⑧ Replace the motor.
3. The motor does not rotate and the meter has no display
(1) Causes of failure ① The fuse tube is burned out. ②The battery is damaged. ③The battery wire is open due to virtual welding. ④The power lock is broken. ⑤The battery contacts or plugs are in poor contact.
(2) Troubleshooting: Use a multimeter to check the battery output voltage. If there is no voltage, check whether the fuse tube and fuse holder, battery, and battery connection line are open. If the battery output terminal voltage is normal, check the controller power input Terminal voltage, if there is no voltage, check whether the electric door lock and cable are disconnected or poorly connected.
4. The motor speed is slow
(1) The cause of the failure ① The speed control handle is damaged. ②The battery capacity is insufficient or cannot be charged. ③The controller is malfunctioning. ④The motor is malfunctioning.
(2) Troubleshooting ①Check the voltage of the speed control signal line (green line) of the speed control hand held speed control. When the handle is at the maximum angle, the speed control end voltage should be 4.2V. If the voltage is less than this, the electrode speed will be slow, and the speed control handle should be replaced. ②Recharge the battery. ③Replace the controller or motor.
5. Motor shaking (brushless)
(1) The cause of the failure ①The hall connector of the motor is defective. ② Poor contact of the handlebar. ③There is interference in the speed signal line.
(2) Troubleshooting: ①The Hall connector of the motor is bad, reconnect it. ②Poor contact of the handlebar, reconnect it. ③There is interference in the speed signal line, try to change the controller and instrument. ④ The vibration of the electric bicycle during use is generally caused by poor contact between the motor Hall switch connector and the handlebar connector. Therefore, focus on checking the connectors, especially the motor Hall switch connectors.
6. The motor is noisy
(1) Reasons for failure: ①The bearing clearance in the motor is large. ②Sweep the bore of the motor rotor. ③The magnetic steel is loose and falls off. ④ Axial movement inside the motor. ⑤The surface of the commutator of the brushed motor is oxidized, ablated, oily, uneven, and the commutator is loose. ⑥ The carbon brush holder is loose or incorrect.
(2) Troubleshooting: ① Replace the bearing. ②Re-repair the stator and rotor. ③Re-bonding the magnetic steel. ④Add a suitable washer in the axial direction. ⑤Clean the surface layer of the commutator or weld the commutator piece firmly. ⑥Adjust the carbon brush holder.
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