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Electric bicycle controller failure

The controller of the electric bicycle is the driving system of the electric bicycle, and it is the core component of the whole electric bicycle.

Its main function is to control the speed of the motor. The controller cooperates with the speed control knob to control the speed of the motor, and the motor can be de-energized with the closing of the brake switch.

And through the instrument control circuit, the instrument displays the power supply voltage, undervoltage and mileage. In addition, the controller also adds other functions, such as cruise control, zero start, reverse charging (energy regeneration), mileage calculation and display, electric braking and intelligent assist control, as well as various status indication functions.


Principle of electric bicycle controller: divided into brushed and brushless

Electric vehicle controllers can be roughly divided into two types: brushed and brushless. Brushed controllers are divided into brushed ordinary controllers and brushed intelligent controllers; brushless controllers are divided into brushless ordinary controllers and brushless intelligent controllers

The brushed ordinary controller is used in conjunction with the brushed motor. The structure is simple, the failure rate is relatively low, and the cost is also low. Now ordinary brushed controllers are basically eliminated, and some of the earlier electric vehicles are still in use.

The brushed intelligent controller is used in conjunction with the brushed motor. The structure and cost are similar to those of ordinary controllers, except that it has a 1:1 PAS function. In fact, this kind of controller is gradually being eliminated.


The brushless ordinary controller is matched with the brushless motor. Its manufacturing structure is a little more complicated, the failure rate is relatively high, the cost is higher, and the price is relatively more expensive than the brush controller.

The brushless intelligent controller is used in conjunction with the brushless motor, and its structure is more complex, with various functions such as assist, electric, and fixed speed. At present, this kind of controller is widely used. Although the price and cost are a little higher, intelligence is always better than ordinary ones.

The biggest difference between an ordinary controller and an intelligent controller is: First, the intelligent controller is larger than the ordinary controller; the second is that the internal electronic components are different, and the intelligence is more than ordinary; the third is that the intelligent controller has complete functions and higher prices. . However, whether it is brushed or brushless, ordinary or smart, the controller must be correctly distinguished, and the controller matched with the motor must be selected for maintenance.


Controller damage generally has the following forms

1. The internal power circuit of the controller is damaged: generally it is a short circuit, open circuit or poor contact inside the controller; a short circuit, open circuit or poor contact in the lead wire of the peripheral controller;

2. Damaged power components: motor damage, poor quality or insufficient grade of power components, poor contact of power components due to installation or vibration, motor overload, insufficient power component drive circuit grade, improper design of power component parameters;

3. Poor contact of the line connection: inadequate protection of the wire, abrasion of the connection wire, and loose connector.

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